Pigmentation of the skin
Pigmentation of the skin – it is a kind of painting, which is acquired mainly through this “brown” pigment, melanin. Its amount depends on the level of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (sunburn). In fair-skinned people, the body produces very little melanin in dark-skinned – a moderate amount thereof, and in people with dark skin – the largest amount of pigment.
Changes in skin pigmentation associated with lack or excess of melanin
CAUSES pigmentation disorders
Melanin is produced by cells called melanocytes, which are found in the epidermis. Its synthesis is due to the enzyme tyrosine. The cause of disruption of the normal pigmentation of the skin can be either excessive production of pigment (hyperpigmentation), which manifests itself in the form of freckles, melasma, moles and birthmarks, and its lack of provoking vitiligo and albinism.
It happens that in fair-skinned people, some melanocytes produce more pigment than the other, that is due to the reaction to sunlight. This uneven distribution of matter leads to the appearance of pigmentation, which is known to us as freckles. Most often they appear on the face and the sun on unprotected parts of the body mostly in the spring and summer, and the winter in most cases are. They are completely harmless, and therefore there is no need for their removal or medication.
Moles or birthmarks
Their origin is associated with an excess of melanin in the skin. They have almost everyone and appear in the first days of our lives. Moles come in different sizes and colors: those that are formed from the lymph nodes and blood vessels are painted in pale pink shade (sometimes red), and those that have appeared due to an excess of melanin – a dark brown or even black.
Moles, like freckles, are considered to be mostly completely harmless, do not need treatment, but there are times when ordinary birthmark becomes a malignant tumor. In the event of signs of increasing or seal of the pigment spots, you must be examined by a dermatologist to confirm or refute the diagnosis.
Melasma. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
Pigmentation Facial Melasma is most often presented, which can be described as dark pigment spots that appear most often in adolescence, as well as pregnant women or women in labor. Very often the cause of pigmentation on the face becomes a violation of hormonal background. Especially this disease affects women.
Especially melasma often occur in women
The pigmentation in pregnancy. The pigmentation in pregnancy – a common phenomenon, which is not to be feared. We moms often have questions such as, how to get rid of pigmentation on the face, but in most cases it does not need to do anything, because after birth comes the stabilization of hormonal melasma and go away without any medical or pharmacological intervention.
Symptoms: brown or yellowish spots, most often seen on the face or neck. Sometimes there is the pigmentation of nipples and halos around them, the cause of which also serve as the hormonal and physiological changes during pregnancy.
Melasma Diagnosis is performed using Wood’s filter, which tests the amount of melanin present in the skin cells.
Doctors distinguish these histological types of the disease:
- Epidermal (location of melanin in the epidermis);
- Dermal (located in the dermis);
- Mixed (positioning part in the epidermis and dermis partially).
Removal of pigmentation often produced by exfoliation, which uses chemicals such as glycolic, salicylic and lactic acid and tretinoin, as well as other drugs of similar action. Use of such a method is best under the close supervision of physicians with their further instructions regarding rehabilitation. Treatment is also made by means of laser hair removal and photorejuvenation.
In order to prevent doctors are advised to refrain from prolonged exposure to the sun as much as possible and to protect the skin from harmful UV rays, which can lead to undesirable consequences.
The cause of vitiligo – a complete lack of melanin in some areas of the skin
Violation of normal skin pigmentation also occurs in the form of the disease called vitiligo. The reason of it is a violation of skin pigmentation, which is formed in some areas due to the complete lack of melanin in the cells. Most often this is due to the lowering of immunity or exposure to the body’s autoimmune disease, thyroid disease, and diabetes. Scientists point out that vitiligo is most often a hereditary disease and is transmitted genetically.
Symptoms are characterized by the appearance of a milky spots of various shapes and sizes, which sometimes leads to significant areas of depigmentation of the skin.
Diagnosis is made during a comprehensive survey dermatologist, during which set the type of disease and the cause of heredity, or the effect of concomitant diseases.
As treatment often prescribed course of therapy with ultraviolet rays (PUVA therapy), which in addition to the prescribed medications to help improve the perception of light skin.
The disease, which is called albinism is considered hereditary, because people are exposed to it, is already born with gene mutations. A characteristic feature is its failure synthesis of tyrosinase, which leads to not only a complete depigmentation of the skin but also the hair and eye iris. The color can range from milky white to brownish.
Some people albino pigmentation of the skin remains the same, but sometimes occurs in children increased production of melanin, and then appear freckles, birthmarks, moles, ability to tan. Hair often have white or brownish color, which can further adult change. Also may vary with age and coloring eye, which is usually light blue or brown. The lack of pigment in the iris makes them more transparent.
For prevention it is recommended to use sunscreen from direct exposure to ultraviolet rays.
In addition to medication or medical treatment of disorders of pigmentation, there are also traditional methods. Most of them are based on whitening the skin without the use of natural substances chemistry. There are many different recipes for folk remedies, which contribute to the normalization of pigmentation throughout the body. Before you start treatment traditional methods, it is necessary to consult a doctor in order to avoid the negative impact on their health.
Cucumber Whitening Facial Mask
During cooking, you will need one small peeled cucumber. It must grate, and the resulting slurry was applied to the area of pigmentation. Hold for 20-30 minutes, and then wash without soap.
Cucumber mask has excellent bleaching properties
Mask alignment complexion
For the masks need the carrot juice, which you want to wipe your face twice a day, immediately after application does not wash off. When the face is dry, it is necessary to rinse with water, diluted milk. For best results, advise to use a glass of carrot juice daily.
Lighten age spots after birth
Mix nepasterizirovanoe milk and alcohol (or vodka) in a ratio of 1: 3. Wipe every night before bed.
Melon juice on age spots
In the affected areas must be applied mashed melon pulp and wipe them melon juice. Repeat the procedure twice a day.
Do not rush too early to worry because of the manifestation of age spots or skin depigmentation, because it is likely that the pretexts for absolutely no panic. If you have any questions or concerns – necessarily refer to a doctor who will confirm or refute or suspicions, as well as give recommendations for further treatment and prevention. Take care of your health!